Nature of the legislative mandate

Nature of the legislative mandate

Nature of the legislative mandate – role of the representative : Classification of opinions : As to what is the proper function of a representative whom the people have chosen to act for them in matters of legislation, there is a wide difference of opinion. The Views which have been expressed by writers on the … Read more

Professional or occupational representation

Professional or occupational representation

Professional or occupational representation : Criticism of proportional party representation. While the System of proportional representation described above is, according to its advocates distinctly superior to the system of majority representation, it is in the minds of many persons defective for the reason that it insures representation only to minorities which are organized as political … Read more

Representation of minority parties

Representation of minority parties

Representation of minority parties Early Advocates. The question whether the constitution should not guarantee representation, proportional or otherwise, to the minor political parties in the state, especially the more important ones, has had supporters dating from the epoch when in practice the principle of minority representation was unknown. John Stuart Mill in his classic book … Read more

Lower Chambers In Constitution

Constitution of lower chambers

General Principles. Concerning the constitution and mode of recruitment of the lower chambers there is now substantial unanimity of opinion and of practice that it should rest upon a popular basis, that its members should be elected by direct, equal, secret, and what is commonly described as universal suffrage, and that the tenure of their … Read more

Upper Chambers

Upper Chambers

Constitution of Upper Chambers. It is not possible here to discuss in detail the constitution of upper chambers, even of the more important states. Upon examination it will be found that they may be grouped in the following classes : First: Those which are constituted wholly or predominantly upon the hereditary principle. They include the … Read more

Constitution of the legislative organ

Constitution of the legislative organ

Constitution of the legislative organ. The Unicameral Principle. For a long time it was regarded almost as an axiom in political science that legislative bodies especially national legislatures should be constituted of two chambers, and in practice the great majority of them are so constituted today. This principle, said Bryce, is the quad semper, the … Read more

Origin and development of the legislative organs

legislative organs

Ancient Legislative Organs. Representative legislative assemblies as we know them today are of comparatively recent origin. Montesquieu observed that the ancients had no notion of a legislative assembly composed of representatives of the people. In the states of antiquity the legislative power was not delegated to small select bodies of representatives but was exercised by … Read more

Distribution of the powers of government

Distribution of the powers of government

Distribution of the powers of government. The Two-Power Theory. Strictly speaking, the powers of government may be classified as first, those which consist in the formulation and expression of the will of the state, and, second, those which have to do with the execution of the will thus expressed. The first power may be comprehended … Read more

Factors which determine the value of the electoral privilege

Factors which determine the value of the electoral privilege

Factors which determine the value of the electoral privilege. First, the Number of Elective officers. Manifestly the value of the suffrage and the power which its possessor is capable of wielding through -its exercise depend upon several conditions. In the first place, it necessarily varies in proportion to the number of elective officers and the … Read more

Existing Suffrage Requirements

Existing Suffrage Requirements

Existing Suffrage Requirements . Exceptions to the Principle of Universal Suffrage : While the principle of what is commonly described as universal suffrage at least for male citizens and in the great majority of countries for women also has now become the general rule, it is hardly necessary to say that the principle is not … Read more