Indian National Congress Established in 1885 by a barely based national tip top, the Indian National Congress (INC) step by step changed into a broadbased patriot association from the earliest starting point of the twentieth century. The Anglo-Indian tumult against the Ilbert Bill amid the viceroyalty of Lord Ripon served to underline the adequacy of an all-India political association as India’s English taught legislators wished to talk viably and definitively to the British rulers.
Surendranath Benerjee, who had been assuming a key part in arranging patriot gatherings like the indian affiliation (1876) and the Indian National Conference (1883), respected the move of AO Hume, a resigned British ICS officer, for building up an association by the western instructed privileged Indians to work as a ‘wellbeing valve’ for the escape of developing disdain of Indians against British run the show. Hume had the favors of Viceroy Dufferin who acknowledged the possibility of such an association as the ‘dedicated restriction’ to the British Raj. Attorney WC Banerjee was picked as the main leader of the INC’s inaugural session in Bombay in December 1885.
Surendranath Benerjee joined the INC at its second session in Calcutta in 1886. The INC was then not an undeniable political gathering, rather a free relationship of compelling men in commonplace legislative issues attempting to develop a national stage. Driving open figures, for example, Dadabhai Naoroji, Feroze Shah Mehta, Badruddin Tayabji, KT Telang and others related themselves with the INC.
The Indian National Congress at first had little year round action and was dynamic just in its yearly social occasions. Its agents were generally upper position Hindus and its pioneers essentially originated from the legitimate calling. Known for their devotion to the Raj, they didn’t care for radical kind of political or social change and were keen on having something to do with government organization and structures of political life. Until 1905 these direct pioneers limited themselves to political disturbance by ‘supplication appeal challenge’.
Toward the starting the Muslims were not pulled in to INC in noteworthy numbers. Sir Sayyed Ahmad prompted the Muslims to keep themselves far from INC in light of a legitimate concern for encouraging Muslim solidarity. Aswini Datta, the mass pioneer of Barisal, portrayed each of the sessions of the INC as ‘three-day musical show’. The direct pioneers of the INC trusted that British govern in India was a decent allotment, which can be improved through arrangements. They evaded the brutality of little gatherings of fear mongers and progressives in Bengal, the Punjab and Bombay regions.
Emissary Curzon’s measure of parceling the area of Bengal in 1905 evoked solid challenge from the Bangali Hindu pioneers and at last offered ascend to activist governmental issues of Aurobindo Ghosh, Bipin Chandra Pal, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai. The Calcutta-based swadeshi development and the program of boycotting British products were instrumental in making the radical group inside the INC. The direct and fanatic pioneers transparently and brutally conflicted in the Surat session (1907) over the ‘approach of mendicancy’ sought after by the conservatives. The INC endured a split as the radicals left it. Congressmen were separated by individual hatreds, and factionalism ended up noticeably endemic inside the INC at national, commonplace and nearby levels. In the interim, the Muslim association (ML) was framed in 1906 to secure the interests of the Muslims.
At the point when the British government included India in Britain’s war endeavors in 1914 without counseling Indian supposition, solid Indian disdain against this approach brought the INC and the ML nearer. The pioneers of INC and ML went into Lucknow Pact (1916) to reinforce India’s interest for self-government. The developing prevalence of the Home Rule Leagues drove by Annie Besant and B.G Tilak and the Lucknow Pact convinced the British government to guarantee in 1917 self-government consistently. Yet, the political circumstance all of a sudden changed for the more terrible in the wake of the Jalianwala Bagh slaughter in 1919.
By the 1920s the old vulnerabilities of royal paternalism were no more. There were clear indications of the start of a more well known legislative issues, being welded into a patriot development by another pioneer Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who had understanding of propelling peaceful Satyagraha development in South Africa and had risen in Indian governmental issues at this hour with his new system of offering protection from shamefulness. He got bolster from the Congress initiative and furthermore from the national progressives who consented to give him a shot of understanding his expressed objective of accomplishing ‘Swaraj’ (self-government) in one year. Gandhi used the grievances of the Indian Muslims over the issue of Khilafat for producing solidarity among the Hindus and the Muslims against British dominion.
Gandhi propelled in 1920 his non-participation development which was the primary genuinely national and well known political crusade against the British government. Gandhi’s technique helped the essentialness of the INC in Indian legislative issues. The INC without a doubt owed a lot of its prosperity into building itself as the associations of standard patriotism in the 1920s to Gandhi and various different pioneers like Motilal Nehru, Madan Mohan Malavya and Chitta Ranjan Das. Later developed another age of pioneers who were substance to work with Gandhi and submit to his power. Noticeable among this gathering were C Raja Gopalachari, Rajendra Prasad, Jawaharlal Nehru, Abul Kalam Azad and Sardar Vallabbhai Patel. Subhas Chandra Bose was at first a piece of this gathering yet soon was unwilling to submit to Gandhi. In spite of the fact that the INC acknowledged in 1929 finish freedom of India as its objective, its primary point was to drive concessions from the British colonialists. Through the Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22) and the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34) Gandhi practiced his allure more than a great many men and ladies to make INC a mass-based political gathering.
At the point when the British government organized the Round Table gatherings and offered the ‘public honor’ for reservation of seats in councils for various groups and planned standings, Gandhi opposed it by attempted a quick unto passing, however the prevalent aptitude of political exchange and troublesome procedure of the British dominion at last got Gandhi and the INC outmaneuvered. The Government of India Act (1935) did not present full dependable government at the focal level yet presented capable self-governance at the common level. There was much hatred inside the INC against the proposed organization with the ‘local states’ and the considerable ‘exceptional power’ in the representative general’s hand.
An inward weight gathering of radicals and communists inside the INC was shaped in 1934 styled as the Congress Socialist Party (CSP) with Acharya Narendra Dev as director and Jayaprakash Narayan as general secretary. Nehru and Subhas Bose identified with the reason for communism however did not formally join the CSP. The pioneers and laborers of the Communist Party of India, which was prohibited around then, worked through the CSP. The gathering of MN Roy and the Krishak Sabha kept up close contact with the INC and the CSP. The solidification of radical powers inside the INC caused some frustration in Gandhi and the rightist camp of the INC.
In the races held in 1937 under the Government of India Act 1935, the INC accomplished awesome achievements in the general seats and shaped its own legislature in six Hindu-dominant part areas. It bombed electorally in Sind and the Punjab and turned into the single biggest gathering in Assam, Bengal and North-west Fortier Province. In Bengal the INC’s choice to dismiss the coalition offer from AK Fazlul Huq’s Krishak Praja Party prepared for the Muslim League-Krishak Praja Party coalition. The ML’s want to shape a coalition government with the INC in UP was additionally disrupted by Nehru’s emphasis on ML tolerating the ‘congress statement of faith’. Keeping in mind the end goal to deflate the radical sail Gandhi designated the liberal pioneer Subhas Bose as the Congress president at the Haripura session (1938).
Bose declined to be a faithful supporter of Gandhi, and demonstrated dynamic authority twisted on a gigantic battle against government and laying the wide standards of arranged financial improvement of India. Gandhi and the rightist pioneers declined to re-choose Bose for the following year, however their chosen one was crushed by Bose with the assistance of the liberals. This encounter in the long run drove Bose out of the INC. In the interim, the ML received the lahore determination (1940) calling for setting up autonomous Muslim states in the subcontinent. In 1941, Bose left India to Europe and from that point toward the East Asian war theaters to dispatch equipped battle against British dominion.
Gandhi propelled the quit india development in August 1942, which went brutally and was smothered rapidly. This was trailed by a progression of transactions between the British government, the INC and the ML for exchange of energy. Emissary Wavell called every concerned gathering to the Simla Conference in June-July 1945, yet nothing concrete rose. The scan for an agreement between the INC and ML demonstrated illusive.
Between December 1945 and February 1946 crisp races were held in which the Indians were observed to be unmistakably isolated in their fidelity to the INC and the ML. In the interim there was a monstrous well known upsurge against British lead in the wake of the trial of the officers of Indian National Army of Subhas Bose, trailed by revolts in the Royal Indian Navy in February 1946 and furthermore wide discontent in the armed force, police and common administration. The British Prime Minister Attlee declared the arrangement of a powerful bureau mission for transaction with the Indian pioneers.
The mission suggested a Constituent Assembly and a dependable interval government to be shaped by Indian pastors. The ML’s interest for Pakistan was not acknowledged, but rather a gathering of territories was prescribed to suit the interest for intense areas on the collective gap. Both the Congress and the League grudgingly acknowledged the suggestions, however the entire arrangement was demolished as Nehru carelessly affirmed the INC’s rights to continue on constitution making with no precondition. This mentality distanced Mohammed Ali Jinnah and the ML which started disrupting Nehru’s interval bureau and sorted out fierce crusades to drive the British government to yield the interest for parcel of India in mid 1947. Attlee sent Lord Mountbatten as the new emissary and set the due date of June 1948 for closure British manage in India. Things now started moving quick. The segment of India occurred on 14 August 1947.
The President List of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
|President's name||Life time||Presidential time||Place of session|
|Umesh Chandra Banerjee||1844 - 1906||1885||Bombay|
|Dadabhai Naoroji||1825 - 1917||1886||Kolkata|
|Badruddin Tayyabji||1844 - 1906||1887||Madras|
|George Yule||1829 - 1892||1888||Allahabad|
|Sir William Euderburn||1838 - 1918||1889||Bombay|
|Sir Firoz Shah Mehta||1845 - 1915||1890||Kolkata|
|P. Ananda Charlappa||1843 - 1908||1891||Nagpur|
|Umesh Chandra Banerjee||1844 - 1906||1892||Allahabad|
|Dadabhai Naoroji||1825 - 1917||1893||Lahore|
|Surendranath Banerjee||1848 - 1925||1895||Pune|
|Rahimatullah M. Sayani||1847 - 1902||1896||Kolkata|
|Sir C. Shankaran Nair||1857- 1934||1897||Amravati|
|Anandamohan Basu||1847 - 1906||1898||Madras|
|Ramesh Chandra Dutta||1848 - 1909||1899||Lucknow|
|Sir Narayan Ganesh Chandavarkar||1855-1923||1900||Lahore|
|Sir Dinshaw Edulji Wacha||1844-1936||1901||Kolkata|
|Surendranath Banerjee||1825- 1917||1902||Ahmedabad|
|Sir Henry Cotton||1845-1915||1904||Bombay|
|Gopal Krishna Gokhale||1866-1915||1905||Varanasi|
|Dadabhai Naoroji||1825 - 1917||1906||Calcutta|
|Rashbihari Ghosh||1845 - 1921||1907||Surat|
|Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya||1861-1946||1909||Lahore|
|Sir William Wedderburn||1838-1918||1910||Allahabad|
|Pandit Bishan Narayan Dar||1864-1916||1911||Calcutta|
|Rao Bahadur Raghunath Narasinha Mudholkar||1857-1921||1912||Bankipur|
|Nawab Syed Muhammad Bahadur||0-1919||1913||Karachi|
|Lord Satyendra Prasanna Singh March||1863-1928||1915||Bombay|
|Ambica Charan Mazumdar||1850-1922||1916||Lucknow|
|Annie Besant||1847- 1933||1917||Calcutta|
|Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya||1861-1946||1918||Delhi|
|Syed Hasan Imam||1871-1933||1918||Bombay (Special Session)|
|Pandit Motilal Nehru||1861 -1931||1919||Amritsar|
|Lala Lajpat Rai||1865 - 1928||1920||Nagpur (Special Session)|
|C. Vijayaragha vachariar Ismail||1852- 1944||1920||Nagpur|
|Hakim Ajmal Khan||1863- 1927||1921||Ahmedabad|
|Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das||1870-1925||1922||Gaya|
|Maulana Mohammad Ali||1878-1931||1923||Kakinada|
|Maulana Abul Kalam Azad||1888 -1958||1923||Delhi (Special Session)|
|S. Srinivasa Iyengar||1874-1941||1926||Guwahati|
|Dr. M A Ansari||1880-1936||1927||Madras|
|Pandit Motilal Nehru||1861 - 1931||1928||Calcutta|
|Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru||1889- 1964||1929-30||Lahore|
|Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel||1875 -1950||1931||Karachi|
|Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya||1861-1946||1932||Delhi|
|Dr. Rajendra Prasad||1884 - 1963||1934 - 35||Bombay|
|Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru||1889-1964||1936||Lucknow|
|Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru||1889-1964||1936 - 37||Fayzpur|
|Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose||1897-1938 Haripura||1938-39||Haripura|
|Maulana Abul Kalam Azad||1888 - 1958||1940-46||Ramgarh|
|Acharya J.B. Kripalani||1888-1982||1947||Delhi|
|Dr. Pattabhi Sitarimayya||1880-1959||1948-49||Jaipur|
|Purushottam Das Tandon||1882-1961||1950||Nashik|
|Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru||1889-1964||1951- 55||New Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata|
|U N Dhebar||1905-1977||1955 -59||Avadi Indore, Guwahati, Nagpur|
|Indira Gandhi||1917 - 1984||1959||New Delhi|
|Neelam Sanjiva Reddy||1913 - 1996||1960 -63||Bangalore, Bhavnagar, Patna|
|K. Kamaraj||1903 - 1975||1964 -67||Bhuvaneshwar, Jaipur|
|Jagjivan Ram||1908 - 1986||1970-71||Bombay|
|Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma||1918-1999||1972- 74||Kolkata|
|Dev Kant Baruah||1914 -1996||1975-77||Chandigarh|
|Indira Gandhi||1917-1984||1978- 84||New Delhi, Kolkata|
|P. V. Narasimha Rao||1921 -2004||1992-96||Tirupati|
|Sitaram Kesri||1919- 2000||1997-98||Calcutta|
|Sonia Gandhi||1946- present||1998-2017||New Delhi|
|Rahul Gandhi||1970-Present||2017-Present||New Delhi|