Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani (Bengali: মওলানা আব্দুল হামিদ খান ভাসানী, 12 December 1880 – 17 November 1976) Politician Popularly known as Maulana Bhasani. Bhashani is a legendary legend of history.He was a self-educated person.His life was village based.He was a popular Islamic scholar and political leader in British India (now Bangladesh) of mass movement, who played a key role in the politics of Pakisthan established in 1947 and Bangladesh in 1971. He is well-known to the people of Bangladesh honorary title Mazlum Jananeta (Leader of the Oppressed) for his lifelong stance for the poor suffered by establishment.
He was one of the main leaders of the United Front in the elections of 1954. He also played a prominent role in establishing an independent Bangladesh. He was mostly associated with the Maoist Communist, and the left-wing politics of political life. Many of his flowers called him “Red Maulana”( “লাল মওলানা”). He was a visionary leader. it was confirmed that as a part of Pakistan, Bangladesh was an independent state structure. In the Kagmari conference of 1957, he was the first to call the Western rulers of Pakistan ‘Walaqumus Salam’ for the first time in the historic hour of separation of East Pakistan.
Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhasani was born on 12 December 1880 at Sirajganj’s Dhanagra Palli. Her father Haji Sharafat Ali. Haji Sharafat Ali and Begum Sharafat Ali’s family had 4 children. A girl and three sons. Md. Abdul Hamid Khan is the youngest of all. His nick name was Chega Mia. Haji Sharafat Ali died while the boys were very young. After some days Begum Sharafat and two sons died in a plague. Small children Abdul Hamid Khan survived.
The orphaned Hamid is take care sometime after uncle uncle Ibrahim. At that time, an Islamic scholar and religious person Nasir Uddin Bogdadi came to Sirajganj. Hamid spent some time in his shelter. Shortly after World War I, in 1893, he went to the house of zamindar Shamsuddin Ahmed Chowdhury of Panchbibi upazila in Joypurhat district. There he worked as Teacher of Madrasah and took charge of the zamindar (Land Lord) children. In 1897, Pir Syed Nasiruddin went to Assam. In 1903, he joined the movement. For the purpose of Islamic education, Deoband went to 1907. After two years there studied there and returned to Assam. In 1917, when Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das visited Mymensingh, Bhasani was inspired to hear his speech. He joined the Congress in 1919 and participated in the non-cooperation movement and was sentenced to ten months imprisonment. In 1923, when Deshbandhu Chittaranjan formed the Swaraj Party, Bhasani played a role in organizing the party. In 1925, he married Alema Khatun, daughter of Shamsuddin Mohammad Chowdhury, the zamindar (Land Lord) of Panchbibi upazila of Joypurhat. In 1926, he went to Assam with his wife Alamema Khatun and started the first Krishak- Proja movement in Assam. In 1929, the first Farmer conference was organized in Bhasan Char, Brahmaputra of Dhubri district of Assam. From here he was named “Bhasani Maulana”. From then onwards, the words of Bhasani are added to the end of his name.
In 1931, at Kagmari of Santosh, in Korakola of Sirajganj and in 1933, a large Farmer conference was held in Gaibandha. In 1937, Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani left Congress and joined the Muslim League. When ‘line practice’ was launched in Assam at that time, he led the movement against repressive customs. During this time, he formed “Assam Chasi Mazur Samity” and established resistance to Dhubri, Goalpara and other places. Sher-e-Bangla AK Fazlul Huq in 1940 joined the Muslim League conference in Lahore. In 1944, Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani was elected president of Assam Provincial Muslim League. There was widespread riot in 1945-46 when the “Bangal Khedao” movement against the Bengalis started in Assam. During this time, Bhasani Barpeta, along with Guwahati and various places of Assam for the protection of the Bengalis. Participated in the Pakistan Movement in 1947, Assam was arrested. Released in 1948. Then he returned to Tangail Santosh.
In early 1948, he was elected a member of the East Bengal Managers’ Council (পূর্ববঙ্গ ব্যবস্থাপক সভার) unanimously as the nominated candidate of the Bengal Muslim League. On March 17, 1948, the manager’s meeting demanded the Speaker to operate in Bengal and insisted on this demand. In a speech in the budget speech on March 19, he said, 75 percent of the taxes that the central government collected from the province of Eastern Bengal should be given to the provinces. Here, the British government used to collect the Jutex and Seltex Revenues during the British period and the share of this tax was not given to the central government.
After the formation of Pakistan, the central government was taking away the taxes from the government of East Bengal, which resulted in the financially weakening of the East Bengal government. It is astonishing that during this time, the annual budget of the East Bengal government was just 36 core taka. However, due to criticism of the government of Muslim League, Muslim League’s ruling party was unhappy with Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani and filed a pretext for this allegation and filed a case in court and harassed Maulana Bhasani in various ways. At last, Maulana Bhashani was appointed as a member of the Board of Governors Resigns from. Despite this, the governor of East Bengal canceled the election of Maulana Bhasani as an executive order. Due to the anti-people activities of the Bengal Provincial Muslim League, Maulana Bhasani convened a Muslim League Working Conference on Rose Garden in Tikatul, Dhaka, on 23-24 jan 1949. On June 23, the commission meeting was adjourned. About 300 employees from all over the country attended the conference.
Ataur Rahman Khan presided over the meeting. Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani was the chief guest. On 23 June East Pakistan Awami Muslim League formed the first opposition political party in East Bengal. Maulana Bhashani was unanimously elected the President of this party. Shamsul Haque was elected general secretary. The first public meeting of Awami Muslim League was adjourned on June 24 at Armanitola Maidan. In the middle of 1949, food was eaten in East Bengal. A public meeting of Awami Muslim League was adjourned on October 11 at Armanitola Maidan. For the failure to solve the food problem at the meeting, the resignation of the East Bengal cabinet was demanded and by breaking the section 144, Maulana Bhasani led the procession. He was arrested on October 14, 1949, for leading a procession and was imprisoned in Dhaka Central Jail.
In 1950, the government organized a hunger strike in Dhaka Central Jail protesting the firing on Khapra Ward prisoners of Rajshahi prison and on 10 December 1950 they were released from prison. In order to demand Bangla as one of the state language of Pakistan, on 30 January 1952, the Bar-Library of Dhaka district formed a general meeting of all-party national language workshops in its chairmanship. Being arrested for 16 months due to co-operation in state language movement. However, under pressure of public opinion, Maulana Bhasani was released from jail on April 21, 1953.
On 3 December 1953, the election of the Provincial Council of East Bengal, Sher-e-Bangla AK Fazlul Huq President of Krishak Sramik Party. Fazlul Huq and Hussein Shaheed Suhrawardy along with the United Front formed the election morcha(United). The United Front gained a huge victory in the elections and secured absolute majority by achieving 227 seats in the provincial assembly of East Bengal.
On 25 May 1954, after the formation of the government led by Fazlul Huq, Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani went to Stockholm capital Of Sweden, to attend the World Peace Conference. On May 30, the central government of Pakistan broke the united front cabinet and issued governor’s rule in East Pakistan and returning to the country of Maulana Bhasani Restricted restrictions on After 11 months in London, Berlin, Delhi and Calcutta, after the ban imposed on him, he returned home on April 25, 1955. The hunger strike began in Dhaka on May 7, 1956 to demand 50 crores of rupees to the central government to prevent foodborne famine in East Bengal. If the government accepted the demand, on May 24 hunger strike. When the Awami League-Republican Party coalition government was formed under the leadership of Hussein Shaheed Suhrawardy in the same year, Maulana Bhasani opposed foreign policy of the government and put pressure on the government to adopt a neutral policy.
In 1956, the draft constitutional bill was introduced in Pakistan in which Pakistan was declared as the Islamic Republic, while Maulana Bhashani protested against the Paltan rally and gave explicit statement.
Kagmari conference was held from 8 February to 10 February 1957. The foundation was started in the chairmanship of Dr. Kazi Motahar Hossain on 8 February. In this meeting Maulana Bhashani also spoke In other lectures he said that East Bengal would be forced to send their Assalsalamualaikum (“Peace be unto you,”) to East Bengal if they were exploited by the central rulers of Pakistan. In the Kagmari conference, Bhasani also demanded to cancel the Pakistani-US military treaty. Prime Minister Suhrawardy resigned from the Awami League on 18 March when he rejected the demand. In the same year, on July 25, ‘National Awami Party’ (NAP) was formed at Rupmahal Cinema Hall of Dhaka under its leadership. By establishing NAP, Bhasani publicly got involved with leftist politics, and since then always was concerned with left-wing politics. On 7 October 1957, when Ayub Khan was in power in the country, martial law was banned by all political parties. On October 12, Maulana Bhasani was arrested from Kumudini Hospital. 4 years and 10 months in Dhaka are imprisoned.
During the detention, from 26 October to 2 November, hunger strikes were held for various demands, including the help of flood victims and fair prices of jute. On November 3, he was released and was involved in the political process of the National Democratic Front. Ayub Khan met in March 1963. In September of the same year, left Dhaka for joining the Chinese Revolution Day festival and stayed for seven weeks in China. On 29 February 1964, the National Awami Party resumed the responsibility of the party’s president, and in the same year, on 21 July the same role played in the formation of a composite opposition party (CP). On July 17, 1965, Ayub Khan’s support for foreign policy was supported. In 1966, he opposed the six-point program presented by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
On June 22, 1967, the central government protested against the publication of Rabindranath music from radio and television. On November 1, 1967, when the NAP was split, the leader of the pro-Chinese NAP took leadership. In 1969, Maulana Bhasani played a strong role in the anti-Ayub movement. Agartala conspiracy claim the release of the accused in the case. On March 8, 1969, he went to West Pakistan and agreed with Pakistan Peoples Party leader Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto to establish democracy and socialism. On 26 February, Ayub Khan rejected the Round Table Conference convened by the workers and encouraged them to observe the besieged program. After the fall of the Ayub Khan government, they demanded rice before voting, establishing Islamic Socialism and other demands.
On 6-8 August 1970, hunger strike demanded to resolve the flood problem. Then he decided to take part in the general election. On 12th November (1970) NAP candidates withdrew from the elections to take part in the relief system in the flood-hit areas of East Pakistan, after the devastating cyclone. On 4 December 1970, at a public meeting in Paltan Maidan in Dhaka, the demand for ‘Independent East Pakistan’ was raised. In March 1971, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman supported the Non-Cooperation Movement and called on him to declare independence on January 18, 1971 at the Paltan Maidan. During liberation war, he went to India and became a member of the Advisory Council of the Mujibnagar Government. On the night of 25 March, Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani was staying in his house at Santos.
He took the eyes of the Pakistan army and left Tangail and went to Sirajganj to his native land. The Pakistan army burned his house of satisfaction. Maulana Bhasani Mozaffar NAP leader Saiful Islam along with a boat took the boat to India’s border. Finally, with the help of Indian Union Minister Moinul Haque Chowdhury, Maulana Bhasani and Saiful Islam crossed the eastern border on 15/16 April 16 and reached Phulbari in Assam. Later, they were given shelter in the Haldiganj BSF camp. Then Maulana Bhasani and Saiful Islam were sent to Kolkata by plane, and a 5th floor flat at Kohinoor Palace in Park Street was provided for their location.
After the independence of Bangladesh on 23 April 1971, Maulana Bhashani issued a statement which was published in the Indian Bengali and English daily newspapers. Besides, Maulana Bhasani sent a message to the Chinese leader Mao Tung, Chou En Lai and the President of the United States, informing them that the Pakistan army was massively massacring in East Bengal. That’s why he rebuked President Nixon because he did not supply arms to Pakistan. In addition, Maulana Bhasani called on President Nixon to recognize Bangladesh. On April 25, 1971, Maulana Bhashani invoked the Soviet Russian President to take effective measures against Pakistan for the brutal torture of the people of Pakistan. On 31 May, Maulana Bhasani said in a statement that seven and a half million people in Bangladesh are engaged in lifelong struggle with the occupation force. They are determined to protect their motherland. They will win this struggle. On 7th June Maulana Bhasani said in a statement that all the regions of Bangladesh today will take the blood of ten lakhs of Bengalis and this blood-vessel will bring Bengal freedom.
Meanwhile, Bangladeshi Prime Minister Tajuddin Ahmad came to Kohinoor Palace twice and met Moulana Bhasani and prayed for his advice and assistance.
An eight-member advisory committee was formed with the initiative of the government of Bangladesh to give the overall character of Bangladesh’s liberation war, which was presided over by Maulana Bhasani. The advisory committee members were:
1) Tajuddin Ahmed,
2) Moni Singh,
3) Professor Mozaffar Ahmad;
4) Monoranjan Dhar.
Under the chairmanship of Maulana Bhasani, in the meeting of the Advisory Committee, it was suggested that no other political solution would be acceptable without full independence of East Bengal.
During the liberation war, Maulana Bhasani stayed in Dehradun, Delhi and other places besides Calcutta. Later, many complained that during his stay in India, he was under surveillance. While staying in India, Maulana Bhasani fell ill twice. He was then admitted to the Delhi All India Institute of Medical Science.
Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani returned from India on 22 January 1972. Released Weekly True words (সাপ্তাহিক হক-কথা ) of 25 February 1972. Although opposed to the Bangladesh-India Friendship Agreement, Mujib expressed his support for the nationalization policy of the government and the constitution of 1972. In 1973, hunger strike was organized in Dhaka on 15-22 May for food demand. On April 8, 1974, the Rabbaniya Samiti was formed in the Hukumat. In June of the same year, when the law violation movement started, Tangail succumbed to house arrest. Historically, in the protest of the construction of the Farakka Dam on May 16, 1976, the leadership led the long march. In the same year on 2 October Khodai established another new organization named Khidmatgar.
In 1925, Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhasani married Alema Khatun, the daughter of zamindar Shamsuddin Ahmed Chowdhury of Panchbibi upazila of Joypurhat. He did, however, he married two.
On 17th November, 1976, the veteran leader died in Dhaka Medical College Hospital. He was entombed beside Pir Shahjaman Dighi in Santosh on the northwest of Sadar upazila of Tangail district in Bangladesh. Thousands of people from all over the country participate in his funeral.
1.Sirajul Hossain Khan, Social Political History of the subcontinent(উপমহাদেশের সামাজিক রাজনৈতিক ইতিবৃত্ত), Dhaka, 2002,