Arguments for Ecclesiastical Supremacy

Arguments for Ecclesiastical Supremacy

During the period from the ninth to the fourteenth century, the leading exponents of the doctrine Arguments for ecclesiastical supremacy were Agobard, Bishop of Lyons, Hincmar, Archbishop of Rheims, Pope Nicholas I, Pope Gregory VII, Manegold of Lutterbach, St. Bernard, John of Salisbury, St. Thomas Aquinas, and Pope Innocent III, Pope Gregory,and his school emphasized … Read more

The Nature of Medieval Political Thought

The Nature of Medieval Political Thought

The Nature of Medieval Political Thought. During the greater part of the medieval period, political life was influenced but little by conscious purpose or by deliberately formulated theory. Certain ideas, surviving from the Roman tradition, or resulting from the teachings of Christianity, or growing out of the relations of feudalism were generally held, but they … Read more

The Relation of Spiritual to Secular Authority

The Relation of Spiritual to Secular Authority

The Relation of Spiritual to Secular Authority. In the early days of Roman Christianity, the emperor had been recognized as head of both state and church. The right of the church to impose spiritual penalties for immoral acts was acknowledged, however, and was exercised even upon the emperors. As the church grew in power and … Read more

The Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire. Throughout the whole period of feudal anarchy, the ideal of an empire, and of an emperor whose authority must be confirmed by a papal coronation at Rome, survived. This idea was upheld by the popes who sought the support of a strong temporal ruler in their contests with the Italian princes. … Read more

Feudalism in Medieval Era

Feudalism in Medieval Era

Feudalism in Medieval Era. From the point of view of political institutions, the early medieval period was characterized, not only by the formation of a powerful ecclesiastical organization which exercised extensive political authority, but also by a contest between two forms of society, the patriarchal, clan type, as represented by the Teutonic barbarians and the … Read more

Political Ideas of the Teutons

Political Ideas of the Teutons

Political Ideas of the Teutons. The Teutonic invaders who overthrew the empire not only added young, vigorous, and healthy population to the decadent Roman people, but brought with them certain political ideas and institutions quite different from those prevalent in the Roman world. They placed a high value on personal independence and emphasized the importance … Read more

St. Augustine The City of God

St. Augustine

St. Augustine The City of God. While the writings of St. Augustine (A.D. 354-430) belong to the period of the Church Fathers just considered, and represent in the main the same point of view, they contained several ideas that demand special attention. The work of Augustine embodies the transition from the classical world, about to … Read more

Political Theory in the Early Church

Political Theory in the Early Church

Political Theory in the Early Church. The founder of Christianity had little interest in political doctrines. In appealing to the lowly and oppressed, the importance of the rich and the powerful was disparaged. In emphasizing the principle of the Golden Rule, the morality of the individual was appealed to, and the authority of government was … Read more

The Rise of the Papacy

The Rise of the Papacy

The Rise of the Papacy. During the Early Church, the bishops of Rome enjoyed no temporal power until the time of Constantine. After the Fall of the Western Roman Empire the papacy was influenced by the temporal rulers of the surrounding Italian Peninsula; these periods are known as the Ostrogothic Papacy, Byzantine Papacy, and Frankish … Read more

Christianity in the Roman Empire

Christianity in the Roman Empire

Christianity in the Roman Empire. Roman religion at the beginning of Roman Empire (27 BC – 476 AD) was polytheistic and local. Each city worshiped its own set of gods and goddesses that had originally been derived from ancient Greece and become Romanized. Two new elements were added to political life at the beginning of … Read more