State and Associations. Society, as said before, is not a mere aggregate of individuals but a collection of groups composed of individuals. The man voluntarily fans these groups to satisfy various and diversified needs, such as social, religious, cultural, economic, educational, recreational, and many others. All these groups express and develop the sociability of man.
In the beginning, man’s social Wants Were few. The groups were limited in number, But in the complex life of our tunes social wants have multiplied enormously and today society, Is a veritable network of such associations; Barker says, “We see society less as some individuals leading a common life, We See it merely as an association of individuals already united in Various groups, each With its common tile, in a further and higher group for a further and higher common purpose.”
An association is defined as a group of persons or members associated and organized into a unity of will for a common end. Cole defines it: “Any group of persons pursuing a common purpose or system or aggregation of purposes by a course of cooperative action extending beyond a single act, and for this purpose agreeing together upon certain methods of procedure and laying down, in however rudimentary a form, rules for common action.” Therefore, an association embraces a group of people having a common purpose or purposes for which they associated and organized themselves. A mere group of men does not form an association. Every association must have, in the first place, some specific purpose or purposes to fulfill. Secondly, individuals so associated should be duly organized. Without organization, it becomes just a collection of individuals or a crowd. A crowd has no method of doing things and achieving its purpose, as there is no common bond of cohesion between them. And there must be some man or body of men to see that the association rules are duly obeyed to realize its purpose. Every association necessarily has its constitution, a code of rules, and a Way of setting up its government churches, political parties, and trade unions.
Differences Which Distinguish State And Associations
The State, too, is a group of human beings. It comes into existence, like other groups, to satisfy human needs through concerted action. While each group has its distinctive character and problems, all pursue their activities to secure a happy and good life. Despite this close resemblance between the State and other associations, some fundamental differences distinguish the State from any other association.
1. The State is a terrestrially integrated association, and its territory is most distinctly demarcated. The jurisdiction of each State lapses beyond its territorial limits. But voluntary associations are not restricted to a definite territory. Many of them are international in scope, spread worldwide, and include in their membership citizens of many States, as the Rotary Club, the Lions Club, the Red Cross Society, and the Boy Scoots and Girl Guides. The membership of each State is distinct. I am a citizen of India, while John is a citizen of the United States of America.
2. Membership of the State is compulsory. One must be a member of one State or another; there is no other option for him. But membership of other associations, except the family, is voluntary and optional. It is for each individual to decide whether he should be a member of one association or many associations. At the same time, It is his own option and choice. He is also free to withdraw from any association whenever he elects to do so; it is his own decision.
3. The State is a permanent and enduring association unless it is conquered and annexed or its units disintegrate and secede as in the erstwhile Soviet Union Governments may come or go, the sovereignty may shift hem one center to another the State continues. But many associations have only a temporary existence. An association may cease to exist as soon as the purpose for which it came into existence had been released. Some associations disappear because of internal dissensions. Even violent internal commotions and changes do not affect the existence of the State. They may simply lead to a change in the government.
4. Each association is promoted for a specific object or objects. Its activities are limited to the pursuit of those interesting other words. The sphere of activity of every voluntary association is well defined. The province of the State, on the other hand, is much wider and, its activities are manifold. It is charged with the care of general rather than particular interests. Maclver says that the State “is essentially an order-creating organization. It exists to establish order, not, of course, merely for the sake of order, but for the sake of all the potentialities of the life which require that basis of the order.”
5. The State is sovereign, and it possesses the power to enforce its decisions. Voluntary associations do not possess the legal power of coercion. If the members of an association disobey its rules and regulations, they cannot be physically punished. It has no means to command and enforce obedience. It can only morally condemn the wrong order, though it may be admitted that in some cases, moral condemnation is worse than physical punishment.
6. The State possesses the power to control the activities of all voluntary associations. It can even ban an association’s existence if it is deemed to have acted or is likely to act to disturb public peace and security. As a matter of fact, no State would permit the formation, or continued existence within its territorial limits, of an association for criminal or immoral purposes or one whose objects are avowedly hostile to the public policy of the State Examples when associations have been declared unlawful or have been dissolved by the command of the State are too numerous to quote The Government of India in 1962 declared the Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangh (RSS) an unlawful association and banned its activities. The ban was lifted afterward. Internal Emergency declared in June 1975 again banned it. It was banned on December 9, 1992, along with the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHF) for the third time. The Bajrang Dal, and the Islamic Sewak Sanghy. Till March 31, 1993, associations and groups, including the four mentioned, above stood banned under the provisions of the Unlawful Activities
(Prevention) Act, 1967. The Pakistan Government, during General Ayub Khan’s 8 military regimes, prohibited the organization of private military. Formations and then liquidated political parties. General Zia-ul-Haq repeated it in 1977 after his military coup, and the ban on political parties continued till 1987.
7. Finally, the State can create many associations and prescribe their functions. The State’s laws establish the universities in every country, and their functions are clearly defined therein. Similarly, it may create corporations or other kinds of associations for certain Specific purposes.