Modernization and Political Development. Modernization, in fact, started first of all in England as a result of the Industrial Revolution (1760-1830) and in France as a result of the Revolution(1789-1794); when America also started modernizing herself in all fields, then this process was called westernization. When the developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America also began to industrialize themselves and adopt modern technology, and adapt themselves in social and economic fields to the changing needs of the time, then this process came to be regarded as modernization. Modernization is thus a process of change in all fields and indicates social transformation.
Meaning of Modernization:-
A society was regarded as more or less modernized by Levy;
To the extent that its members use inanimate sources of power and or use of tools to multiply the effects of their efforts.
A modern society, according to Ward, is characterized;
By its far-reaching ability to control or influence the physical and social circumstances of its environment and by a value system which is fundamentally optimistic about the desirability and consequences of this ability.
Rustow too would identify a modern society with a;
Rapidly widening control over nature through closer co-operation among men.
Modernization, in its historical sense, is, in the words of Eisenstein,
Is the process of change towards those types of social, economic and political systems that have developed in Western Europe and North America from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth and then have spread to other European countries and in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to South American, Asian and African countries.
However, according to M. Nash;
There seems:to be consensus among Writer Writers on the view which described modernity, the end-result of the process of modernization, as the social, cultural and psychological frame-work which facilitates the application of science to the process of production. In brief, it is movement towards technology in a Western political frame-work.
Benjamin Schwartz describes political modernization as,
The systematic sustained and powerful application of human energies to the rational control of man’s physical and social environment for various human purposes.
Modernization as a multifaceted process involve change in all areas of human thought and activity.
Thus modernization is a process, which means a change in all the fields, social, cultural, psychological, economic and political but still it is essentially an economic concept. Though it is mainly an economic concept, still it puts emphasis on social mobilization, Social mobilization means an overwhelming change in a large population of those countries which are moving from their traditional way of life to the modern ways of life.
Thus when an ancient society steeped in ignorance and poverty, old and outdated beliefs and superstitions and mainly dependent on sluggish agriculture begins to discard them and moves forward to a new way of life and adopts the path of social transformation, urbanization, industrialization; mechanization, new technology. and increasing literacy, then we can say that the society is marching toward modernization.
Basic Characteristics of Modernization:-
The most important characteristics of modernization are;
- Application of technology and mechanization.
- Rise in national income and per capita income.
- Increase in literacy.
- Political participation.
- Development of mass-media techniques.
- Social mobility.
- Cultivation of national identity.
Application of technology and mechanization:
This means in other words that the people give up their old ways of living, old methods of agriculture and travelling. Previously, the majority of the people in India used to live in villages in old ways in Kuccha houses and they used to cultivate their lands through ploughs and travel by means of bullock-carts.
Now, this has been given up entirely as the people now live in well-built houses, cultivate their fields through tractors and us¢ other modern methods of agriculture chemical fertilizers or manure, good seeds irrigation system and harvesting through machines.
Now the ordinary people prefer to travel by means of buses and trains but the more affluent section of the society i.e. the rich people prefer to travel by super-fast trains and aeroplanes. This means in other words that the people are using modern, methods of technology and mechanization.
Previously the people used to spin cloths through spindles and live in traditional ways and use their old patterns of occupation and places of residence. When the industrialization of a country takes place, the people give up their traditional rural and agricultural economies. Its place is taken over, industrialization. New factories and mills continue to grow daily and use late techniques.
When the industrialization of a country takes place then the new centres of industries develops Consequently, the people of village particularly the labourers migrate in large number to these new centres in the city with the hope that they will return to their villages after making enough money, but well their livelihood in the villages and agriculture cannot bear so much burden.
Moreover, it is very inconvenient for them to come and go daily from the village to the cities as there is a lot of rush in buses and trains and travelling is very costly. So with the growing industrialization of the country, the people in large number continue to migrate from the villages to cities and settle permanently there, This in return causes many problems in the cities, housing sanitation, improving methods of communication and acquiring more and more lands for manifold purposes.
The rise in national and per capita income:
The agricultural economy alone cannot increase the national wealth and per capita income as it has to support the idle members of the society also. Therefore in order to raise the national and per capita income, the old economy based on agriculture has to be supplemented by industrial growth and its income because by exporting the industrial goods the country can make huge profits.
Increase in Literacy:
Another prominent feature of modernization is that all-out efforts are made by the Government and the society to wipe out illiteracy and strenuous efforts are made not only to send every child to school but the adults are also persuaded to learn three Rs. This education does not remain limited only to arts, science and commerce but also spreads to higher medical education, research, technology and crafts. Thus the avenues of higher education are made available to every person in all fields. So everybody runs after attaining higher education.
When the best possible opportunities are offered to every person to attain higher education, the people become enlightened. Economic development and equal distribution of wealth enable everybody to share sometime from the pressing necessity of daily wants and devote it to political participation. Every voter begins to read newspapers and learn something about politics.
The voter ultimately becomes enlightened and votes for that party which is likely to solve economic problems and take the country to further heights unattainable so far. Therefore the political participation is made possible in a democracy through political parties, interest groups, and various other organizations.
They influence the government for the welfare of citizens and equal opportunities are made available in services to everybody irrespective of caste, lour, creed, religion, sex or such other considerations.
Development of Mass-Media techniques:
The modernization brings in its wake the development of mass-media techniques. These mass-media techniques include newspapers, broadcasting, postal facilities, movies, road, rail and air services, electricity, and T.V. Through all these facilities, the citizens become enlightened and well-informed and these, in turn, enable the citizens to serve the state in a better way.
When the modernization of a country begins to take place, then the people go on migrating from the villages to cities in search of better amenities and jobs. The role of village Sarpanch becomes insignificant and is replaced in the cities by the role of the leaders of various political parties and the Unions. As the people become conscious, so they rally around that leader, who is likely to deliver the goods.
Cultivation of national identity:
When the modernization of any country takes place, then the people begin to give up their narrow loyalties and parochial considerations of caste, colour, sex or creed. Their interests become identified with the interests of the nation.
Modernization does not necessarily mean discarding all traditional values and cultural or political heritage. Modernization does not necessarily mean that the people may discard all their traditional values or cultural and political heritage.
For example, the British are traditionally conservative but still, they have retained their old institutions like kingship and House of lords. Though their powers have been sufficiently curtailed, yet they have been made useful institutions which could serve the growing needs of the society, Therefore the British arc is considered as one of the most modern nations, Similar is the case with the Japanese, the French and the Germans. We in India are also doing the same. Without losing our cultural or Political heritage, we are adopting the latest technology and modem scientific techniques. Thus, we are marching towards modernization with great speed.
Agents of Modernization:-
After this, we have to discuss the things that helped modernization. These are the following:
The first and foremost agency that brought about modernization ts colonialism. Whatever be the motives of the colonialists, they built a network of roads, railways, telegraphs and telephonic services banking systems, processing plants and the like. First of all, they did these things in order to strengthen their ethical hold on the countries which they had conquered by means of brute force. They established processing plants in order to use the raw material of the dependent countries for their motherland. The swift means, of communication that the colonialists established in their own interest, were also used by the nationalists in order to establish contacts among themselves and forge unity. Thus the colonialism helped each dependent country towards modernization in its initial stages. When the country becomes free, then the tasks of modernization is taken up by the national leaders.
The second most important part played in the modernization of the country are the elites of the country. The colonialists establish schools and colleges in order to impart education in their language and literature so that the people of a colonial country may give up their own cultural heritage and ignore their own history and literature but the students trained in those schools and colleges go up for higher training to the ruling country. They come into contact therewith the democratic institutions and men of modern outlook. When they return home, they are pained to see the plight of their own countrymen. Therefore they press for reforms and start national agitations when their demands are not conceded. We are well familiar with the role of Shri Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Lok Manya Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Mahatma Gandhi, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and many others who first of all went to England to get higher education and then took 4 leading part in the national movement.
It has been observed that in certain backward countries military leaders capture power by means of force and then adopt the path of modernization in order to stabilize their regimes. We are familiar with the history of Turkey, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma, Nigeria, Algeria, Sudan and many Latin American countries. In those countries, the military coups occurred and to topmost Generals captured power and then they started the process of modernization.
For example, Kamal Ataturk modernized Turkey. Ayub Khan and Zia-ul-Haque started the same process in their own country. In Bangladesh, though there was strong opposition to the autocratic rule of General Arshad, yet he was modernizing the country in his own interest. In 1998 Wazid Hassina, daughter of Shiekh Mujibur Rahman was ruling, In Iran, Ataullah Khomeini after capturing power did the same thing.
The political parties in a democracy play a prominent role in the modernization of the country. They develop a spirit of patriotism and secular outlook among the masses. The Indian National Congress acquired power and after that, it has launched the country on a path of progress. A huge ark of schools, colleges, roads, railways, bridges, telephones, steel plants and industries in the public sector has been spread. Huge dams have been constructed very State to provide facilities of irrigation and generate electricity. No efforts hat 6 n spared to improve agriculture and modernize it.
When in any country civil government becomes unable 10 control the public unrest and the conditions of civil war take place, then the military intervenes and assumes the reigns of the government. The military authorities curb the disintegrating tendencies with a strong hand and launch the country on a path of progress. Thus the military modernizes the country. This has happened in turkey Egypt, Burma, Pakistan and a host of other countries.
The party-in-power in a democracy is always most anxious to modernize the country in order to prolong its rule. The ruling party has to implement, all its development programmed through the bureaucracy. Therefore bureaucracy plays a significant role in modernizing the country. When these bureaucrats retire, they take with them a progressive outlook which they spread amongst the Masses.
Classification of Political System; on the Basis of Political Modernization:-
Shills have offered a five-fold classification of the political systems.
Political Democracy :
It is the form of government that is prevalent in England, France, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Belgium, Holland, West Germany, Italy, India and Japan. Shill has described it as a regime of civilian rule through representative institutions and public liberties. Its main characteristics are the supremacy of the Parliament and the responsibility of the executive to it Independence of the judiciary, rule of law, freedom of speech and press and to form associations. In this form of government, the opposition parties are allowed to exist and contest elections. Criticism of the opposition parties by the government is not only tolerated but also welcomed. The Opposition leader also receives the salary and allowances, and all other amenities like a Minister.
It refers to a political system that observes the Norms and values of democracy and thus tries to emulate the ways of democracy. Shills describe such a system as the because in it, the executive remains the strongest and the legislature has a restricted role. Opposition is also lowed to exist and operates through the executive. Rule of law also exists.
This system falls midway between traditional Oligarchy and political democracy. In such a type of government, the rule is either in hands of a civilian government that maintains its authority with the help of the military or the rule of the country is in the hands of the military which keep all bowers and gives the form of legitimacy to its role. In this form of government, no opposition is allowed to exist but the Parliament is kept only to ratify the decisions of the executive and administrators. The elections are banned and the position of bureaucracy is exalted. Such type of oligarchy is not liked by the people at all because they are deprived of the right to choose their representatives and have no say in the running of the government.
In this type of government, rulers come to power on kinship alone or by a combination of kinship and selection of person qualified by kinship to participate in the selection process, So it is based on strong dynastic constitutionalism associated with traditional religious beliefs, The ruler chooses his ministers on the basis of kinship or amongst his confidants. The cuter exercises his authority with the help of his counsellors. In such a type of government, there is no place for the legislature and the Opposition is not allowed to exist. There is also a prevalence of fundamentalism in such a type of government.
In such a type of government, either the all-powerful ruler of the rightest type as existed in Fascist Italy or Nazi Germany is found or leftist type of the ruler like Stalin exists. In China also such a type of totalitarian rule existed in the time of Mao-Tse Tung. There is absolutely no scope of opposition parties, independent judiciary or the rule of, law.
The classification is given by Kautsky:-
The types of political systems given by Shills have been modified in various ways by other writers like Kautsky and David Apter. Kautsky divides political development into five categories
- Traditional autocratic authoritarianism.
- Totalitarianism of the aristocrats.
- Totalitarianism of the intellectuals.
However, he makes it quite clear that it should not be mistaken for an adequate description of any or all existing political systems. He adds, there is an indefinite number of variations, sub-types, and mixed and transitional forms that make it impossible to find any of the five types in pure form. He emphasizes this point only that by formulating these five types in pure form, it is possible to facilitate comparisons and thereby formulate generalizations and advance our understanding of the political process.
The classification is given by David Apter.
In the process of modernization. Apter offers a quite complex theory of stages and alternate paths of political development in the large framework of political modernization. He starts from the traditional societies and regarding the change, he offers three types of authority (hierarchical. pyramidal and sentimental) and two value types (instrumental and consummation). There is scope in the Apter scheme also for the analysis of modernizing autocracies, military oligarchies and other complete patterns of political modernization.
Modernisation is thus a process that helps a rapid change> from traditional to modern concepts. It also helps the society to utilize all its resources for the development purpose and thus society becomes modern from all points of view-social, economic, cultural, political, intellectual, religious, psychological and so on.
Factors Which Help Modernization:-
As we have seen that there are various factors that help modernization. The following main points figure in this connection:
Development of Science and Technology :
There cannot be two opinions in this respect that the development of science and technology play a major role in the process of modernization. Due to this factor, a mad race is going in various countries of the world for the development of science and technology. If some latest development takes place in the field of science and technology in nuclear or space field just like Star Wars, then it becomes a prestigious question for the U.S.S R. also.
China, first of all, was not recognized by the U.S.A. as a great power but when China developed an auctioneer device then Mr, Nixon, President of the U.S.A. went himself to seek the hand of friendship of China. India also exploded her first nuclear device on 18 May 1974 at Pokhran in Rajasthan in order to prove to the world that she does not lag behind the other countries in this respect, Thus India entered as sixth men bet of nuclear chub in the field of technology, China has caught up with the U.S.A, and U.S.S.R.
She -has developed intermediate-range ballistic missiles. In the air she has now developed inter-continental ballistic missiles capable of delivery at longer distances, India is also going ahead with its research programmer in space with a greater speed, India shot her first satellite in space known as Arya Bhatta.
Then it threw into space Apple. After that, it was sent into space. These satellites have helped India a lot in gathering information especially about coming rains and gathering storms in the sea.
India is still making progress by leaps and bounds in the field of technology by using computers, but at the same time we cannot overlook this factor that while plenty of labour is available in our country, there is a scarcity of capital, Therefore the technology has to be different in India.
As Mahatma Gandhi once put it, what is needed in developing societies is a production by the masses rather than mass production, for which it may be more necessary to develop what has been variously called intermediate technology self-help technology or appropriate technology a technology which is appropriate to the requirement of the developing countries. Therefore the economy may be provided to the labourers and the educated youths.
Development of industrial Civilization:
It is most important to industrialization a backward country in order to lead it on the path of modernization. That is the reason Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first, Prime Minister of India established many steel plants in the public sector. He started a factory for making railway coaches at Perambur (Tamil Nadu). He started Chittaranjan Locomotive Works. He established Bhopal Heavy Electrical, He built many dams in order to provide more facilities for irrigation and generate electricity. Like U.S.S.R. India has also launched many Five Year Plans in order to accelerate the growth of the economy. Therefore whatever political system may prevail in any country, it cannot afford to ignore industrial development because it brings economic prosperity to the country. Consequently, we see that England, France, West Germany, Japan, U.S.S. R. and China are highly industrialized countries.
Successful Working of Democratic Institutions:
Democracy is regarded as one of the best means to modernize a country. England, France, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Belgium, West Germany, U.S.A., Japan and India have modernized themselves in this way. The Westerners believe in this institution thoroughly and they regard it as the key to modernization but the communists regard this political democracy as the rule of a few bourgeoisie and though there is the dictatorship of the Communist Party in the U.S.S.R. East European countries (Finland, Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and East Germany).
China, Vietnam, North Korea etc., yet they consider it a socialist democracy, Dictatorship of the Communist Party in these countries have in turn become a dictatorship of the politburo or General Secretary in these countries.
It is altogether a different thing whether we may agree with this political system or the other political system but it is true that these communist countries have also modernized, themselves to a great extent and compare favourably with the industrialized countries of the West.
So far India is concern it has adopted the democratic system and through its Five Year Plans, it has made rapid strides in economic development and marching ahead with a terrific speed towards modernization but in spite of that about 40%, people live below the poverty line. This situation must be remedied by means of equal distribution of wealth.
We have explained modernization, It should be quite clear that moderation is a Concept that refers to all-around development, whether it 1s social, economic political or organizational development. The political aspect of modernization is also used as political development. Therefore, the terms political modernization and political development are used interchangeably. While dealing with modernization, many writers have excluded political development from modernization because it is covered specifically under the term political development.
Political Development defined and explained :
Just like modernization, there are different views of scholars also in regard to political development.
Rostow and Pye hold that political development aims at;
National unity and broadening of the base of political participation.
G.A, Almond regard political development;
As the acquisition of new capability, in the sense of a specialized role, structure and differentiated orientation which together give a political system the range of problems.
Hagan regards political development as the;
Growth of institutions and Practices that allow a political system to deal with its own fundamental problems more effectively in the short run, while working towards more responsiveness of the regime popular demand in the long run.
Alfred Diamont holds that;
Political development is not a process which aims at achieving a particular political condition, but one which creates an institutional framework for solving an ever widening range of social problems.
Eisenstadt considers political development;
As the ability of a political system to sustain continuously new types of political demands and organization. Thus there is no unanimity of opinion regarding the above definitions.
Almond and Powell’s view of Political Development:
In spite of the different approaches, concentration on political institutions and processes is common to all. To Almond and Powell, it implies four problems:
- Political participation.
- Welfare and distribution.
State-building, according to Almond and Powell implies the creation of new structures and an increased degree of differentiation in the existing structures of the State. To say in simple words, the State must have modern government and administrative apparatus and agencies. It is notable that in the backwards and under-developed countries, the State manages its own affairs with the help of rudimentary apparatus or with inadequate organization.
It does not possess adequate machinery and separate organizations to deal with all sorts of social, cultural, economic and political problems which arise from time to time in a developing or under-developed country. Therefore the State-building can occur only when the Government creates adequate machinery to deal with the multi furious problems.
State-building is commonly associated with significant increases in the regulative and extractive capabilities of the political system with the development of centralized and penetrative bureaucracy related to the increase it these capabilities, and the development of attitudes of obedience and compliance in the population which are associated with the emergence of such bureaucracy.
While the State-buildings points out the improvement of structure for the performance of State-building, nation-building emphasizes one should give up narrow loyalties (loyalty to the tribal chief, family caste, ethnic group, religion, region and the like) and switch off his loyalty to the nation. In other words, it means that one should owe his allegiance to the State in preference over narrow loyalties. Consequently, it means national integration.
It is not necessary that State-building and nation-building may go together. There are many instances to show that in some developing countries while state-building has been solved, the problem of nation-building still remains to be solved.
Bangladesh got dismembered from Pakistan because the problem of national integration was not solved there. In Lankan, the ethnic problem has not been solved, so violence has erupted in that country from time to time and 124, 828 refugees had come from that country to India by December 31, 1985.
During 1983-84 and 1984-85, Rs. 68.50 lakh and Rs, 143.18 lakh respectively were spent on providing relief to both repatriates as well as refugees, From February 4, 1985, when a separate account for the expenditure on relief to the refugees was maintained, Rs. 1.76 crore had been spent on this account till September 1985 as reported by Tamil Nadu Government. In India also the problem of nationalizing or national integration had not been solved, because the Sikh terrorists were killing people for the establishment of Khalistan.
Whenever a society develops politically, there is also an increasing demand of the public in the decision-making process. These claims are generally put forward through such political structures as political parties, pressure groups, factions, cliques and various organizations. Therefore the government has to respond to these demands. Political participation thus implies the development of the requisite political infrastructure and the responsive attitudes and bargaining skills of the elite.
Distribution and Welfare:
Increased political participation further leads to the demand that the values, benefits and national income should be distributed equally among all sections of the society, irrespective of caste, colour, sex and creed. Equal opportunities should be given to all and merit should be the only consideration in the criteria for selection in the high posts.
Lucian Pye’s view of Political Development.
Lucian Pye is, however, the pioneer among the earlier batch of writers to analyse the concept of development in depth, and has kept on evolving his ideas on the subject and left an abiding impression on the entire literature of political development.
Lucian Pye, however, changed his concepts by 1965 and thereafter he wrote that political development could be traced at three different levels:
- With respect to the population as a whole.
- With respect to the level of governmental and general system performance, and
- with respect to the organization of polity.
Firstly, Political development with respect to the population as a whole implies that the citizens do not behave like a subject race receiving orders from the higher authorities and obeying them unhesitatingly but take an active part in the decision-making process. In this way, they share in contributing and shaping Political decisions. To say, otherwise, there is greater involvement of the masses in a developing system.
Secondly, it means that with the political development there develops a greater capacity of the people to manage their own affairs, control controversy or cope with popular demands. That system that does not allow the people’s participation in the decision-making process, cannot carry the people with there and fails to win support. Such a system fails to win the support of the public.
Thirdly, with regard to the organization of polity, a developing political system implies greater structural differentiation, functional specificity and immigration of the participating institutions.
Lucian Pye thus gave three characteristic features oy equality, capacity and differentiation that determine political development, By equality, Pye means demand for political participation, universalisation of law and equality in the recruitment process.
So the first characteristic of Pye’s political development is the same which is described by Almond and Powell in their two concepts of political participation and distribution. By, capacity, Pye means first by how a political system acts and is acted upon by the environment, and secondly, what is the performance of the political system in terms of its scope, scale, efficiency and effectiveness.
By differentiation, Pye mean specialization of the task to be performed by different structures. It refers to what Almond and Powell call State building. This proves that in comparison to Almond and Powell, Pye introduces only one new concept of capacity.
Both Political Development and Modernization Affected by Common Factors:-
Modernization and political development go together. There can be no doubt that it is modernization that brings political development. So political development is the political aspect, of modernization. Therefore the factors which affect both are common. These factors are the following:
There is no denying the fact that traditions have a greater hold on the public than anything else. So the traditions play a major role in determining the form of the political system which the country adopts. In Czarist Russia (before the revolution of 1917) there was a major problem with how to adjust Russian traditions to Westernization which in their wake were bound to bring innovations. Though both U.S.A. and Russia have modernized themselves, yet they have a different political system according to their own traditions, This is also the case with India and China which are modernizing themselves with different political traditions.
Time also affects both the process of modernization and political development. When India became independent on August 15, 1947, then our political leaders were keen to have a western model because of the long British rule in this country and the experience in the working of the Act of 1919 and 1935. Moreover, the Act of 1935 with some adaptations was still in force. But when our leaders visited Russia, they saw that country had made tremendous progress because of socialism and planning. Therefore, Mr Jawaharlal Nehru also set up a Planning Commission and launched many Five Year Plans. Now the Seventh Five Year Plan is in operation. Mr Nehru also set the goal of the Indian National Congress as the socialistic pattern of society in the Avadi session (Madras) in 1955. It was repeated in the Congress session of Bhubaneshwar (Orissa) in January 1964.
The nature of modernizing political leadership largely determines the extent up-to which tradition is to be adopted in the process of modernization and political development. If the traditions come in the way of modernizing process, then the leadership determines to what extent the traditions are to be discarded. Anyhow the leadership at the top decides the pace of political, economic and social modernization, so that with the shortest possible time, the country may be able to catch with the developed countries like the U.S.A., U.S.S.R. West Germany and Japan. In India, Mr Jawaharlal Nehru and Mrs Indira Gandhi were very well familiar with the traditions and culture of their country, yet they were bent upon modernizing the country in every way and they did their best in this direction. They have adjusted socialism, democracy and secularism to the traditions of the country. Now under the dynamic leadership of our young Prime Minister Mr Rajiv Gandhi, the country is marching towards modernization and political development with terrific speed.
Political development and modernization are the concepts that overlap and merge into each other in the ultimate analysis. We can conclude with the remarks of C.H. Dodd that the whole problem of the distinction between political development and political modernization is full of ambiguity and the original, difficulties. Both of them instead of showing the sharp differences, converge into each other. So they are contributory and complementary to each other rather than contradictory.